Is Tesla or any other company or government body doing any serious research on which changes to our roads and signage would improve the energy efficiency and safe-driving capabilities? The way we do roads is quite conservative, mostly for good reasons. You can learn to drive in one end of the world and easily go across the globe, rent a car and most signs and road devices will be relatively familiar to you. But they are horribly outdated with regards to the revolution in self driving capabilities and the new importance of energy efficiency. I know there are people working on autonomous intersections: But there are a lot of other things that are worth studying. For example, road bumps and stop signs seem like horribly energy inefficient devices that can be replaced with something smarter. Every stop/start or slow down/speed up cycle wastes a lot of energy, unless you have really good regenerative braking. Adding metal particles to the paint can help the self-driving car to use radar to see the lanes despite poor visibility conditions. Adding QR codes to signage can help self-driving cars with more complex signage and small print. For example parking signs with complex rules that depend on the day of the week and time of day can be hard to read and understand even for humans, but a QR code can contain a URL that would return a standardised JSON description of parking rules for this spot, and maybe real time availability and pricing.