Hi, everybody. I created this table mostly based on EPA highway dyno test scores. Here is a direct link to the image in case it appears blurred. Why not use EPA rated range to compare the range of different Tesla cars instead of EPA dyno scores? Because of two reasons: 1. EPA rated range shows the combined city and highway range. 55% of EPA rated range is based on the city test and 45% on the highway test. The city test replicates stop and go traffic at 21 mph average speed. You can see the details here. However, city range is irrelevant for EVs. Therefore I have used only the EPA highway dyno scores. The reason EPA uses the combined range is that the tests were designed to measure the fuel economy of gas cars but they use the same test to measure EV range. 2. EPA rated range is not even the actual combined city and highway score because EPA allows car manufacturers to inflate or deflate the scores after the test is done. Deflating happens by voluntary reductions. Car manufacturers are allowed to voluntarily reduce the EPA rated range they want to advertise. Tesla uses this option frequently to make the range gap between the S and X look smaller than it is. Inflating happens by using alternative multipliers to convert dyno scores to EPA range. Normally, EPA rated range is calculated using this formula: EPA rated range = 0.7 * [(EPA city range * 0.55) + (EPA highway range * 0.45)] In the formula, the 0.7 multiplier is needed because the EPA dyno tests are performed at low speed. The city test is performed at 21 mph and the highway test at 48 mph average speed. This results in unrealistically high range numbers. Therefore they apply the multiplier to convert the numbers to more realistic numbers. So far, all EV manufacturers have used the 0.7 multiplier except Tesla. Tesla actually uses 0.7 too but only for the Model 3. They use higher multipliers for S/X to inflate the numbers. More information about this can be found here. If a car manufacturer decides to inflate or deflate their range numbers, the Monroney sticker (aka window sticker) and the numbers on EPA website show the inflated or deflated numbers. Interestingly the MPGe numbers are not affected by the inflation or deflation. In the past, there were some lawsuits related to inflated MPG numbers. I guess that could be the reason why the car manufacturers and EPA decided not to inflate those numbers. Converting EPA highway dyno scores to range numbers I have used more realistic multipliers to adjust EPA highway dyno scores until they matched the following numbers: Model S 75D: 265 miles at 65 mph Model X 90D: 260 miles at 65 mph Model 3 LR: 350 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: article I've calculated the first two numbers from these test scores: Model S 75D: 235 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: video and article Model X 90D: 230 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: article Consumer Reports tested the Model S 75D and Model X90D with regen set to low. That's wrong because most Tesla owners use the standard regen setting. Consumer Reports also tested the Model 3 LR but luckily they have released both numbers. The score was 310 mi at 65 mph with low regen and 350 mi at 65 with standard regen. Therefore I have applied the 350/310 correction ratio to calculate what the Model S 75D and Model X 90D would have been if they had used standard regen. Consumer Reports will also test the Model 3 LR with 18" wheels and aero covers. They took delivery of their Model 3 and they said they will test it. I will update the chart after the test. 22 May 2018: I have updated the chart Range at 70, 75, 80 mph This is based on two sources: 1. Tesla's graph here (I have measured the pixels in photoshop and created a transparent chart on a spreadsheet that matches this curve exactly. 2. Also, there is another test that shows Model S 85's range at 45, 60 and 70 mph. Check out page 2 here. Both sources have very similar results. Supercharge percentages and 30-min Supercharge rates I've used this video for the S/X supercharge percentages. For the Model 3 LR, I've used this calculation 170/310= 54.8% in 30 minutes based on the 170 miles in 30 minutes number Tesla published here. The '30 min Supercharge' column refers to the range at 65 mph, not EPA rated range because it is not comparable between different Tesla models. Different wheel options: There are 3 wheel configurations for the Model 3: 18" wheels without aero covers 18" wheels with aero covers 19" wheels I think the test was done with #1 because of two reasons: 1. On page 4 here you can see a photo of the car during the test. 2. On page 16 here, it shows these two numbers: 9.95 HP for Model 3 with 18" and 11.13 HP for the Model 3 with 19". The ratio is 9.95/11.13= 89.4%. Now let's look at the Model S RWD numbers. On page 5 here, it shows these numbers: 11.45 HP for the Model S with 19" wheels and 12.78 HP for the Model S with 21" wheels. The ratio is 11.45/12.78= 89.6%. The difference is almost identical and the Model S in this test doesn't have aero covers. Therefore the almost identical difference suggests that neither the Model 3 nor the Model S had aero covers. To calculate #3, I have used the A, B, C coefficients on the same page (on page 16) here. It shows these numbers: Model 3 18" A= 38.51 B= ‐0.0811 C= 0.01610 Road load @50 mph= 9.95 HP Model 3 19" A= 42.30 B= ‐0.0212 C= 0.01691 Road load @50 mph= 11.13 HP The HP numbers at 50 mph are useful but I needed the numbers at 65, 70, 75, 80 mph. On Reddit, some people said the gains with the smaller wheels would diminish at higher speeds. This is correct but the change is very small. The efficiency difference between 18" - aero vs 19" at different speeds is as follows: 65 mph 10.97% 70 mph 10.70% 75 mph 10.44% 80 mph 10.19% To calculate these, I used the A, B, C numbers you see above which allow calculating the road load at any speed. We happen to have the road load at 50 mph. Therefore it is possible to double check whether the calculation is correct. Here is the calculation (50^2 means 50 * 50): (42.30 * 50 + ‐0.0212 * 50^2 + 0.01691 * 50^3 )/375= 11.135 HP In this formula, you can change 50 mph to 65 mph, then do the same calculation with the other A, B, C numbers for 18" wheels and then compare the results and you get 10.44% difference at 75 mph. For #2, I used an estimated 6% improvement because there is no definitive data yet. In 2012 Tesla released aero covers for the Model S and people were reporting 5 to 10% improvement. I figured 6% would be a safe bet. Battery Degradation: The range numbers shown are for new cars. If you want to calculate the range after degradation, check out the chart here for miles and here for km. You can see that the range drops to 95% at 45,000 miles or 72,500 km. For the Model 3, the drop to 95% will actually happen at a 25% higher mileage than the Model S because the Model 3 is more efficient and requires fewer charge cycles to achieve the same mileage.