Hi, everybody. I created this table mostly based on EPA highway dyno test scores. The first table is in miles, the second one in km.

It is well known that larger wheels reduce the range. Tesla actually used to display a warning on the Model X Design Studio but unfortunately they removed that.

Because of two reasons:

1. EPA rated range shows the combined city and highway range. 55% of EPA rated range is based on the city test and 45% on the highway test. The city test replicates stop and go traffic at 21 mph average speed. You can see the details here. However, city range is irrelevant for EVs because you need maximum range for long distance trips, not when you are driving around your hometown. Therefore I have used only the EPA highway dyno scores. The reason EPA uses the combined range is that the tests were designed to measure the fuel economy of gas cars but they use the same test to measure EV range.

2. EPA rated range is not even the actual combined city and highway score because EPA allows car manufacturers to inflate or deflate the scores after the test is done. Deflating happens by voluntary reductions. Car manufacturers are allowed to voluntarily reduce the EPA rated range they want to advertise. Tesla uses this option frequently to make the range gap between the S and X look smaller than it is.

Inflating happens by using alternative multipliers to convert dyno scores to EPA range. Normally, EPA rated range is calculated using this formula:

EPA rated range = 0.7 * [(EPA city range * 0.55) + (EPA highway range * 0.45)]

In the formula, the 0.7 multiplier is needed because the EPA dyno tests are performed at low speed. The city test is performed at 21 mph and the highway test at 48 mph average speed. This results in unrealistically high range numbers. Therefore they apply the multiplier to convert the numbers to more realistic numbers. So far, all EV manufacturers have used the 0.7 multiplier except Tesla. Tesla actually uses 0.7 too but only for the Model 3. They use higher multipliers for S/X to inflate the numbers. More information about this can be found here.

If a car manufacturer decides to inflate or deflate their range numbers, the Monroney sticker (aka window sticker) and the numbers on EPA website show the inflated or deflated numbers. Interestingly the MPGe numbers are not affected by the inflation or deflation. In the past, there were some lawsuits related to inflated MPG numbers. I guess that could be the reason why the car manufacturers and EPA decided not to inflate those numbers.

I have used more realistic multipliers to adjust EPA highway dyno scores until they matched the following numbers:

Model S 75D: 265 miles at 65 mph

Model X 90D: 260 miles at 65 mph

Model 3 LR: 350 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: article

I've calculated the first two numbers from these test scores:

Model S 75D: 235 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: video and article

Model X 90D: 230 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: article

Consumer Reports tested the Model S 75D and Model X90D with regen set to low. That's wrong because most Tesla owners use the standard regen setting. Consumer Reports also tested the Model 3 LR but luckily they have released both numbers. The score was 310 mi at 65 mph with low regen and 350 mi at 65 with standard regen. Therefore I have applied the 350/310 correction ratio to calculate what the Model S 75D and Model X 90D would have been if they had used standard regen.

Consumer Reports will also test the Model 3 LR with 18" wheels and aero covers. They took delivery of their Model 3 and they said they will test it. I will update the chart after the test.

22 May 2018: I have updated the chart

This is based on two sources:

1. Tesla's graph here (I have measured the pixels in photoshop and created a transparent chart on a spreadsheet that matches this curve exactly.

2. Also, there is another test that shows Model S 85's range at 45, 60 and 70 mph. Check out page 2 here. Both sources have very similar results.

I've used this video for the S/X supercharge percentages. For the Model 3 LR, I've used this calculation 170/310= 54.8% in 30 minutes based on the 170 miles in 30 minutes number Tesla published here. The '30 min Supercharge' column refers to the range at 65 mph, not EPA rated range because it is not comparable between different Tesla models.

There are 3 wheel configurations for the Model 3:

1. On page 4 here you can see a photo of the car during the test.

2. On page 16 here, it shows these two numbers: 9.95 HP for Model 3 with 18" and 11.13 HP for the Model 3 with 19". The ratio is 9.95/11.13= 89.4%. Now let's look at the Model S RWD numbers. On page 5 here, it shows these numbers: 11.45 HP for the Model S with 19" wheels and 12.78 HP for the Model S with 21" wheels. The ratio is 11.45/12.78= 89.6%. The difference is almost identical and the Model S in this test doesn't have aero covers. Therefore the almost identical difference suggests that neither the Model 3 nor the Model S had aero covers.

To calculate #3, I have used the A, B, C coefficients on the same page (on page 16) here. It shows these numbers:

Model 3 18"

A= 38.51

B= ‐0.0811

C= 0.01610

Road load @50 mph= 9.95 HP

Model 3 19"

A= 42.30

B= ‐0.0212

C= 0.01691

Road load @50 mph= 11.13 HP

The HP numbers at 50 mph are useful but I needed the numbers at 65, 70, 75, 80 mph. On Reddit, some people said the gains with the smaller wheels would diminish at higher speeds. This is correct but the change is very small. The efficiency difference between 18" - aero vs 19" at different speeds is as follows:

(42.30 * 50 + ‐0.0212 * 50^2 + 0.01691 * 50^3 )/375= 11.135 HP

In this formula, you can change 50 mph to 65 mph, then do the same calculation with the other A, B, C numbers for 18" wheels and then compare the results and you get 10.44% difference at 75 mph.

For #2, there is a video here that mentions 4.4% difference at 70 mph. Based on my calculation, the difference should be as follows at different speeds:

55 mph 3.39%

60 mph 3.74%

65 mph 4.07%

70 mph 4.40%

75 mph 4.68%

80 mph 4.98%

In addition, in 2012 Tesla released aero covers for the Model S and many people were reporting 5% or more range improvement which is another data point. Btw, Tesla has a blog post here that mentions the effect of wheel size on range.

Tesla hasn't started making the Standard Range version yet. Therefore I want to explain how I calculated the range numbers even though this car doesn't exist yet. The calculation is based on cell counts. We know that the Long Range pack has 4416 cells and the standard range has 2976 cells (source). The Model 3 LR's EPA highway dyno test score is 454.7 mi (source: page 7). Using the cell count ratio, the Model 3 SR's score should be (2976/4416) * 454.7 mi= 306.4 mi with 18" wheels and no Aero covers.

However, that would be the range if the weight of the car remained the same as the Model 3 LR but the smaller battery is lighter. Luckily we know the weight numbers for these cars from Tesla's page here: 3549 lbs. for the Model 3 SR and 4072 lbs. for the Model 3 LR. Using these numbers, I calculated that the SR's EPA highway dyno score should be 320.2 mi. Using that number, I calculated the range numbers for the SR too.

By the way, in case people are curious about the battery size, we know that the Long Range pack has 78,270 Wh (78.27 kWh) usable capacity (source: page 6 footer). Therefore the Standard Range pack is expected to have (2976/4416)*78270= 52,747 Wh usable capacity.

The Standard Range battery has 96*31= 2976 cells and the Long Range battery has 96*46= 4416 cells. 96 comes from 96 bricks. Each brick consists of cells connected in parallel. See the leaked information here. The 2170 cells are 3.7 Volts. Therefore each brick is also 3.7 Volts. Then the bricks are connected in series which provides 96*3.7= 355.2 Volts which is the pack voltage. In other words, the MR battery will have 96 bricks just like the LR and SR batteries to achieve 355.2 Volts. In addition, Elon said that the MR battery has just fewer cells but otherwise uses the same pack as the LR battery.

Because LR has 46 cells per brick and SR has 31, the middle would be 38.5 cells. I have done some calculations considering both 38 cells or 39 cells per brick options. Based on the vehicle weight number Tesla released for the Mid Range version, 39 looked more likely but considering the 260 mi EPA rating, the numbers look more balanced if we assume 38. Also, for official purposes, Tesla rates the pack sizes at 75, 62 and 50 kWh. Because they went with 62 instead of 63, 38 instead of 39 makes more sense. So I went with 96*38= 3648 cells and calculated range numbers based on that.

The range numbers shown are for new cars. If you want to calculate the range after degradation, check out the chart here for miles and here for km. You can see that the range drops to 95% at 45,000 miles or 72,500 km. For the Model 3, the drop to 95% will actually happen at a 25% higher mileage than the Model S because the Model 3 is more efficient and requires fewer charge cycles to achieve the same mileage.

It is well known that larger wheels reduce the range. Tesla actually used to display a warning on the Model X Design Studio but unfortunately they removed that.

**Why not use EPA rated range to compare the range of different Tesla cars instead of EPA dyno scores?**Because of two reasons:

1. EPA rated range shows the combined city and highway range. 55% of EPA rated range is based on the city test and 45% on the highway test. The city test replicates stop and go traffic at 21 mph average speed. You can see the details here. However, city range is irrelevant for EVs because you need maximum range for long distance trips, not when you are driving around your hometown. Therefore I have used only the EPA highway dyno scores. The reason EPA uses the combined range is that the tests were designed to measure the fuel economy of gas cars but they use the same test to measure EV range.

2. EPA rated range is not even the actual combined city and highway score because EPA allows car manufacturers to inflate or deflate the scores after the test is done. Deflating happens by voluntary reductions. Car manufacturers are allowed to voluntarily reduce the EPA rated range they want to advertise. Tesla uses this option frequently to make the range gap between the S and X look smaller than it is.

Inflating happens by using alternative multipliers to convert dyno scores to EPA range. Normally, EPA rated range is calculated using this formula:

EPA rated range = 0.7 * [(EPA city range * 0.55) + (EPA highway range * 0.45)]

In the formula, the 0.7 multiplier is needed because the EPA dyno tests are performed at low speed. The city test is performed at 21 mph and the highway test at 48 mph average speed. This results in unrealistically high range numbers. Therefore they apply the multiplier to convert the numbers to more realistic numbers. So far, all EV manufacturers have used the 0.7 multiplier except Tesla. Tesla actually uses 0.7 too but only for the Model 3. They use higher multipliers for S/X to inflate the numbers. More information about this can be found here.

If a car manufacturer decides to inflate or deflate their range numbers, the Monroney sticker (aka window sticker) and the numbers on EPA website show the inflated or deflated numbers. Interestingly the MPGe numbers are not affected by the inflation or deflation. In the past, there were some lawsuits related to inflated MPG numbers. I guess that could be the reason why the car manufacturers and EPA decided not to inflate those numbers.

**Converting EPA highway dyno scores to range numbers**I have used more realistic multipliers to adjust EPA highway dyno scores until they matched the following numbers:

Model S 75D: 265 miles at 65 mph

Model X 90D: 260 miles at 65 mph

Model 3 LR: 350 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: article

I've calculated the first two numbers from these test scores:

Model S 75D: 235 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: video and article

Model X 90D: 230 miles at 65 mph. Tested by Consumer Reports. Source: article

Consumer Reports tested the Model S 75D and Model X90D with regen set to low. That's wrong because most Tesla owners use the standard regen setting. Consumer Reports also tested the Model 3 LR but luckily they have released both numbers. The score was 310 mi at 65 mph with low regen and 350 mi at 65 with standard regen. Therefore I have applied the 350/310 correction ratio to calculate what the Model S 75D and Model X 90D would have been if they had used standard regen.

Consumer Reports will also test the Model 3 LR with 18" wheels and aero covers. They took delivery of their Model 3 and they said they will test it. I will update the chart after the test.

22 May 2018: I have updated the chart

**Range at 70, 75, 80 mph**This is based on two sources:

1. Tesla's graph here (I have measured the pixels in photoshop and created a transparent chart on a spreadsheet that matches this curve exactly.

2. Also, there is another test that shows Model S 85's range at 45, 60 and 70 mph. Check out page 2 here. Both sources have very similar results.

**Supercharge percentages and 30-min Supercharge rates**I've used this video for the S/X supercharge percentages. For the Model 3 LR, I've used this calculation 170/310= 54.8% in 30 minutes based on the 170 miles in 30 minutes number Tesla published here. The '30 min Supercharge' column refers to the range at 65 mph, not EPA rated range because it is not comparable between different Tesla models.

**Different wheel options:**There are 3 wheel configurations for the Model 3:

- 18" wheels without aero covers
- 18" wheels with aero covers
- 19" wheels

1. On page 4 here you can see a photo of the car during the test.

2. On page 16 here, it shows these two numbers: 9.95 HP for Model 3 with 18" and 11.13 HP for the Model 3 with 19". The ratio is 9.95/11.13= 89.4%. Now let's look at the Model S RWD numbers. On page 5 here, it shows these numbers: 11.45 HP for the Model S with 19" wheels and 12.78 HP for the Model S with 21" wheels. The ratio is 11.45/12.78= 89.6%. The difference is almost identical and the Model S in this test doesn't have aero covers. Therefore the almost identical difference suggests that neither the Model 3 nor the Model S had aero covers.

To calculate #3, I have used the A, B, C coefficients on the same page (on page 16) here. It shows these numbers:

Model 3 18"

A= 38.51

B= ‐0.0811

C= 0.01610

Road load @50 mph= 9.95 HP

Model 3 19"

A= 42.30

B= ‐0.0212

C= 0.01691

Road load @50 mph= 11.13 HP

The HP numbers at 50 mph are useful but I needed the numbers at 65, 70, 75, 80 mph. On Reddit, some people said the gains with the smaller wheels would diminish at higher speeds. This is correct but the change is very small. The efficiency difference between 18" - aero vs 19" at different speeds is as follows:

- 65 mph 10.97%
- 70 mph 10.70%
- 75 mph 10.44%
- 80 mph 10.19%

(42.30 * 50 + ‐0.0212 * 50^2 + 0.01691 * 50^3 )/375= 11.135 HP

In this formula, you can change 50 mph to 65 mph, then do the same calculation with the other A, B, C numbers for 18" wheels and then compare the results and you get 10.44% difference at 75 mph.

For #2, there is a video here that mentions 4.4% difference at 70 mph. Based on my calculation, the difference should be as follows at different speeds:

55 mph 3.39%

60 mph 3.74%

65 mph 4.07%

70 mph 4.40%

75 mph 4.68%

80 mph 4.98%

In addition, in 2012 Tesla released aero covers for the Model S and many people were reporting 5% or more range improvement which is another data point. Btw, Tesla has a blog post here that mentions the effect of wheel size on range.

**Model 3 Standard Range**Tesla hasn't started making the Standard Range version yet. Therefore I want to explain how I calculated the range numbers even though this car doesn't exist yet. The calculation is based on cell counts. We know that the Long Range pack has 4416 cells and the standard range has 2976 cells (source). The Model 3 LR's EPA highway dyno test score is 454.7 mi (source: page 7). Using the cell count ratio, the Model 3 SR's score should be (2976/4416) * 454.7 mi= 306.4 mi with 18" wheels and no Aero covers.

However, that would be the range if the weight of the car remained the same as the Model 3 LR but the smaller battery is lighter. Luckily we know the weight numbers for these cars from Tesla's page here: 3549 lbs. for the Model 3 SR and 4072 lbs. for the Model 3 LR. Using these numbers, I calculated that the SR's EPA highway dyno score should be 320.2 mi. Using that number, I calculated the range numbers for the SR too.

By the way, in case people are curious about the battery size, we know that the Long Range pack has 78,270 Wh (78.27 kWh) usable capacity (source: page 6 footer). Therefore the Standard Range pack is expected to have (2976/4416)*78270= 52,747 Wh usable capacity.

**Model 3 Mid Range**The Standard Range battery has 96*31= 2976 cells and the Long Range battery has 96*46= 4416 cells. 96 comes from 96 bricks. Each brick consists of cells connected in parallel. See the leaked information here. The 2170 cells are 3.7 Volts. Therefore each brick is also 3.7 Volts. Then the bricks are connected in series which provides 96*3.7= 355.2 Volts which is the pack voltage. In other words, the MR battery will have 96 bricks just like the LR and SR batteries to achieve 355.2 Volts. In addition, Elon said that the MR battery has just fewer cells but otherwise uses the same pack as the LR battery.

Because LR has 46 cells per brick and SR has 31, the middle would be 38.5 cells. I have done some calculations considering both 38 cells or 39 cells per brick options. Based on the vehicle weight number Tesla released for the Mid Range version, 39 looked more likely but considering the 260 mi EPA rating, the numbers look more balanced if we assume 38. Also, for official purposes, Tesla rates the pack sizes at 75, 62 and 50 kWh. Because they went with 62 instead of 63, 38 instead of 39 makes more sense. So I went with 96*38= 3648 cells and calculated range numbers based on that.

**Battery Degradation:**The range numbers shown are for new cars. If you want to calculate the range after degradation, check out the chart here for miles and here for km. You can see that the range drops to 95% at 45,000 miles or 72,500 km. For the Model 3, the drop to 95% will actually happen at a 25% higher mileage than the Model S because the Model 3 is more efficient and requires fewer charge cycles to achieve the same mileage.

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